Investment opportunities in Iran
In Iran, as in other countries, the most significant and important areas of investment are as follows:
Banks and financial and credit institutions
Coin and Gold Market
You can select the topic you want from the table of contents of this article to be directed to the relevant section:
Risk means what is the percentage of probability that the ultimate goal of an investment is deviated and to what extent. Certainly, someone who invests a certain amount of money in a bank is fully aware and confident that he will achieve a certain amount of profit by the end of the fiscal year, and therefore the risk of this investment is low. In other markets, for example the coin and gold market, the investor can never state definitively the amount of profit received.
The relationship between risk and return
Let's first quote from Robert Kiyosaki, who says in a book called The Rich Dad of the Poor Dad: "The reason poor people are always poor is that they choose low-risk markets to invest in and are willing to do nothing. Lose money. Low-risk markets always make less profit, while most rich people get rich by losing money. Choosing pasteurized markets is always a smooth path for cautious people due to the lack of significant profits.
The return that each person expects from an investment is directly related to their level of risk-taking:
Bank interest has a guaranteed and risk-free return
Real estate profits are always associated with a relative risk
The profitability of starting a business and companies entering the market is associated with a risk, especially in the beginning
The return on investment in the stock market, as well as in a positive direction can satisfy shareholders, it is likely that in the opposite direction will cause losses for investors.
What are stock stocks?
The share of a unit introduced in the stock market for a company to be listed on the capital market. An equal number of shares in that company is called a share. Investors buy a percentage of the company by buying a number of shares, and therefore share in the profits and losses of that company in the same proportion as they are shareholders. The capital market or stock market actually provides a space where all companies are gathered and investors in this market can buy and sell their shares. The shareholder must be careful about which company he invests in and with what history and performance, because as soon as he buys any number of shares, he will participate in the company's profit or loss process.
Managers and owners of different companies use different methods to increase the value of products, profitability and economic growth of their company. One of these methods is entering the stock market and OTC market. In fact, by publishing its shares in the stock market and creating a platform for small and large investors, the company will enable investors to make a good profit and increase the value of their shares and returns. In fact, companies enter the stock market for the purpose of financing and a high percentage of them achieve their goal. The stock market is a two-pronged market for both capital owners and small and large investors.
What is the stock market? What is the stock market?
There are two types of markets in the Iranian capital market: the stock market and the over-the-counter market. Companies that are listed on the stock market are subject to stricter conditions and rules than the over-the-counter market. Conditions such as minimum capital to enter the market, minimum number of shares, free float percentage and… are among the frameworks that are somewhat different in this market category.
What is the meaning of free float percentage?
Free float percentage is the percentage of shares in a company that are held by micro-investors during a fiscal year. For example, stock companies have a higher free float percentage than OTC, which means that small investors in the stock market are more involved in controlling and managing stocks than investors in OTC companies. Therefore, it can be concluded that stock companies, larger companies, have more capital and number of shareholders and have a larger free float percentage.
Although in general it can be said that there are no significant differences between stock exchange and OTC companies, but it can not be denied that the risk of investing in the OTC market is higher than the stock market, why? The smaller the companies, the greater the risk of investing. Companies have entered the OTC market that do not have the necessary conditions to register in the stock market.
What are the different places in the stock market?
The first stock market
Second OTC Market
OTC third market
New tools (such as: participation bonds, bonds, etc.)
As you can see in the list above, companies can enter the capital market in different ways and places. The interesting point is that the closer we get from the beginning of the list (the first stock market) to the end of the list (new tools), the smaller and more risky companies will be seen in the list of these markets.
The base market is one of the most risky places to invest, which means that in this market companies do not have the necessary and sufficient liquidity to buy and sell (liquidity is one of the most important factors to consider when buying a stock) and investing. And sales are negotiated. In other words, the seller must look for someone to buy that share from him or, conversely, find someone who is willing to sell his share to him. New tools have different rules and characteristics than the other four categories and therefore do not fit into stock market discussions.
What are participation bonds?
Participation bonds are called bonds that indicate the participation of the holder in a specific project. For example, suppose a petrochemical company needs 200 billion tomans of capital to launch a new production line, and also based on studies, they have concluded that if this new line is launched, the capital It will be reimbursed within four years from the profit from the sale of the products of this new line. Also, the company's profitability increases between twenty-five to thirty-five percent annually, and in one sentence, we can say that these experts have come to the conclusion that this plan is economically justified. Now one of the ways in which a company can raise $ 200 billion is by issuing bonds.
In fact, by selling these bonds to investors, the company provides the required financial resources and can launch a new line, and investors share in the profitability of the newly launched line in proportion to the bonds purchased. The most important feature of guaranteed participation bonds is guaranteed, clear and risk-free, which is given to investors at specified intervals.